Joseph Lochner was a Bavarian immigrant who opened Lochner’s Home Bakery in Utica, New York. He challenged his conviction and fine under a New York labor law for allowing an employee to work more than sixty hours per week.
Justice Rufus Peckham
Rufus Peckham (November 8, 1838 – October 24, 1909) was the Supreme Court justice (1895 – 1909) who wrote the majority opinion in Lochner. He studied law under his father and rose to prominence as a successful New York lawyer and judge. Peckham was a strong proponent of the individual’s right to freedom of contract as part of a general right to liberty.
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was a Supreme Court justice (1902 – 1932) who wrote a very pointed dissent in Lochner. He argued in his dissent that the Constitution did not embody a particular economic theory.