Charles Schenck was a Socialist Party leader who believed that war benefitted the rich at the expense of poor men who were sent to fight. He opposed the draft and claimed that it violated the Constitution. Schenck was sentenced to and served six months in jail.
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was the Supreme Court justice (1902 – 1932) who wrote the well-known majority opinion in Schenck. Holmes was recognized for his bravery fighting for the Union during the Civil War and was greatly influenced by his military service. The “clear and present danger” test created by Justice Holmes would last for 50 years.
President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was president of the United States (1913 – 1921) during World War I and believed that American support was critical to victory. He asked Congress to pass the Espionage Act of 1917 to punish people who opposed the war or the draft as disloyal.